The keys to optimizing screening of the fetal heart are to understand how the ultrasound machine’s functions and controls can affect your image, utilize the entire maternal abdomen, adjust your image presets, and optimize your angle of insonation. So how do you do all that?
You start with the transducer. Be sure to select a transducer that allows for adequate penetration and optimal resolution. All transducers have different operating frequencies and capabilities; high frequencies produce better detail resolution but, of course, with limited sound penetration. These frequencies can be applied in all trimesters, particularly since the advent of high-resolution transducers, which are helpful when imaging delicate heart structures, such as the valves and vessel walls. If, however, the imaging is subpar with a high-frequency transducer, switch to a low-frequency transducer, which is more useful in your patients with a high body mass, in the late second trimester, in the third trimester, and in the event that there is also polyhydramnios syndrome, even when there is rib shadowing. Keep in mind too, that transvaginal imaging is helpful for evaluating the fetal heart in the first or early second trimester, in the event that there is suspected fetal cardiac abnormality, and even when maternal body habitus causes imaging to be difficult.
For your next step, adjust your image presets to optimize your temporal resolution so that you maintain a high frame rate of greater than 25 frames per second. A few of the technical settings that affect temporal resolution are the frame rate (in Hz), frequency selection, depth & focus, sector angle width, and zoom magnification. The better the temporal resolution, the improved detail resolution. To optimize your image, avoid unnecessary depth and make sure your focus is on the region of interest. A multiple focal zone may be applied to structures that don’t move, such as the placenta, but when looking at the 4-chamber heart, you will need a single focal zone. In addition, adjust your sector angle width. Reducing it increases lateral line density, which improves the image quality. Finally, make small adjustments to your settings, such as applying speckle-reduction imaging, adjusting the dynamic range (more or less gray), and scanning in different tones.
When incorporating color Doppler, the color box, color gain, wall motion filter, velocity scale/pulse repetition frequency (PRF), balance, and angle of insolation can each affect the image. The color box slows the frame rate by a significant degree so the smaller the color box, the higher the frame rate. Set color gain initially on low (ie, less color) and gradually increase it until you have optimized the amount of color. The wall motion filter eliminates signals caused by wall motion and low velocities. The velocity scale is the range of mean velocities or PRF in the region of interest. If it is too low, it can produce aliasing, which could lead to a misdiagnosis; too high and the low-velocity flow will not be displayed. Here is a sample of potential ideal velocity flows:
|High-velocity flow (>60–80 cm/sec)||Low-velocity flow (<30 cm/sec)|
|Atrioventricular valves||Pulmonary veins|
|Semilunar valves||Bicaval (IVC/SVC)|
|The great vessels (3VV)||Evaluating atrial and ventricular septum|
The balance allows you to display how much grayscale and color Doppler information you would like to see. Reducing the balance will show grayscale elements within the color box. And, finally, the angle of insonation is very important to keep in mind as the signal from the transducer should be parallel to the direction of blood flow.
One of the major challenges in ultrasound imaging is scanning a morbidly obese patient. This is a result of the increased distance between the transducer and fetal anatomy, causing degraded resolution. Some techniques for optimizing your imaging in these cases include scanning above the tissue, when the patient’s bladder is full, through the umbilicus, or when the patient is in the Sim’s position (with the patient on their left side), which allows the extra tissue to fall to the left side. Also, keep in mind that when scanning an obese patient, the color doesn’t always fill in. Lowering the color attenuation can help clarify the image.
So, remember, the key to optimizing your fetal heart imaging is in understanding your machines’ functions and controls and how they can affect your image, utilizing the entire maternal abdomen, adjusting your image presets, and optimizing your angle of insonation!
To learn more and see case scenarios, see the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine’s (AIUM’s) on-demand webinar with speaker Mishella Perez, MS, RDMS, RDCS, “Fetal Heart Image Optimization: The Key to Screening”, from which this post was adapted. AIUM members can access the webinar for free.
Interested in learning more about fetal imaging? Check out the following resources from the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM):
- On-demand lecture: How to Perform a Detailed Anatomic Ultrasound Examination in the First Trimester
- JUM article: Trouble With the Curve: Pearls and Pitfalls in the Evaluation of Fetal Growth
- On-demand course: Fundamentals of OB-GYN Ultrasound
- on-demand webinar: Utilizing Ultrasound Technology to Maximize Information in the Age of COVID-19